Subhaditya InfoWorld: Engines Car ,Ships And Aeroplane: Transport Medium On Road, Water And Air.Subhaditya InfoWorld It is almost impossible to imagine now how difficult it used to be to move about the country . Watt was born in 1736, in Greenock, Scotland . One of the job they asked him to do was to repair a model of Newcomen`s steam engine.
Watt also made his engine capable of rotary movement, using a crank and gear wheels. The earliest steam engines were stationary. The first successful steam train was built by George Stephenson in 1814. The result was the internal combustion engine.
The modern engine we use in our cars is based on the four-stroke engine, built by Nikolaus Otto in 1876. Modern car engines have 4, 6 or 8 cylinders. Small petrol and Diesel engines are often two-stroke engines. The piston uncovers parts or holes in the cylinder wall as it moves up and down. The Otto-cycle On the first stroke the piston goes down and the inlet valve opens. On the second stroke piston rises compressing the mixture . This pushes the piston down for the third strokes. Steam from the boiler enters the cylinder through a valve and pushes the piston down. The first practical steam vehicles, called “horseless carriages”, were built in 1820. They travelled at about 30 mph. In the 19th century, the trend was to developed light vehicles, which were easy to manoeuvre.
This means carrying large quantity of heavy and bulky coal. These made it possible to do away with external combustion in engines. The first successful gas engine was built by Etienne Lenoir in 1860. The world`s first practical petrol-driven cars were produced in 1885. At the beginning of the twentieth century steam engine cars were still being produced.
When petrol cars became self-starting, electric cars went out of favour . Interest in electric cars has revived because they donot pollute the air. The first true automobile being driven in Vienna in 1950 on the 75th anniversary of its invention by Siegfried Marcus. The 1911 Ford Model T was the most popular car made at the time.
The first people to travel by water probably used log as simple boats. Their first boats were made from bundles of reeds. The usual time was 100 days. Another type of engine often used is called the Diesel engine.
The Diesel engine also powers some land vehicles, such as lorries and buses. Hovercrafts and hydrofoils can move more swiftly because they travel above the water. Many flying machines and devices have been tried . The first successful balloons were launched by the Montgolfier brothers in 1782. In 1783 their balloon carried people through the air for the first time, although the balloon was tethered to the ground.
The wings of a glider are shaped so that as they pass through the air an upward force called the lift is created.
Gliders rely on the wind to give them the force or thrust to move forwards. Their first successful flight took place on the 17th December 1903. At first flying was regarded as a dangerous sport. In 1919 Alcock and Brown were the first to fly the Atlantic nonstop. In 1939 Pan American provided the first transatlantic passenger device.
During the second world war, planes were the most vital part of the flighting force.
During these six years, neccessity led the great advances in the development of aircraft. The main advances were the use of monoplanes (single wing) in place of biplanes (double wing) and the development of the jet engine . By the end of the war both sides were using jet fighters. For example, The Boeing 707 was a development of the B29.